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Journal of Asian Martial Arts - Articles
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Boxer Zhang Songxi and the Origins of the Internal-External School Concept

By Marnix Wells, Ph.D., and Stanley E. Henning, M.A.




Boxer Zhang Songxi and the Origins of the Internal-External School Concept

In the “Biography of Boxer Zhang Songxi” and the epitaph for resistance fighter Wang Zhengnan, both were labeled as practitioners of the “internal school of boxing,” versus what he called the Shaolin or “external school.” However, this article posits that the internal-external school concept may more political than martial arts oriented.

SOURCE: Journal of Asian Martial Arts, Vol. 20 No. 2 (2011): 8 pages.


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